By Ted Lipien
Today, August 23, marks the 80th anniversary of the signing of the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the Communist Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. Also known as the Hitler-Stalin Pact, it led to the launch of World War II with Germany’s attack on Poland on September 1, 1939 and the Soviet attack on Poland on September 17, 1939.
The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact also included secret provisions which opened the way for the Soviet annexation of the Baltic States and parts of Romania, as well as the Soviet attack on Finland. All of these German and Soviet acts of aggression and annexations were initially condemned by the United States. The Soviet-Nazi alliance also allowed Stalin to order arrests and forced deportations of hundreds of thousands of people, many of whom were executed or perished in the Gulag.
Millions of people were condemned to death or virtual slavery as a result of the Hitler-Stalin Pact, including Jews who died in the Holocaust because the agreement opened the way for Hitler to occupy areas where Jews lived, and yet VOA editors did not see it necessary to mark the pact’s 80th anniversary with a special report or analysis.
The Soviets continued to deny the existence of the secret provisions of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact until 1989. To this day Putin’s propagandists deny the historical significance of the Soviet-Nazi alliance and Soviet Russia’s and Soviet communist dictator Josef Stalin’s responsibility for helping to start WWII.
Taking all of this into consideration and the pact’s 80th anniversary, I expected the Voice of America Central English Newsroom to issue its own report on the 1939 Soviet-Nazi agreement and its significance for today’s propaganda war with Putin’s Russia. But as I discovered doing searches of the VOA English News website and a separate Google search of VOA online content, the VOA English-language news service apparently has not had a full-length report on the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact since 2009.
International and U.S. media devoted far more attention than the U.S. tax-funded Voice of America to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact anniversary and its significance in Putin’s propaganda offensive against the West.
BBC News, The Guardian, Deutsche Welle (DW), Euronews, Bloomberg, The Atlantic and other media outlets had special reports analyzing how the German-Russian alliance changed history.
August 23 was also observed as Black Ribbon Day, the National Day of Remembrance for the Victims of Communism and Nazism in Europe. Leaders of several countries issued special declarations, including Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. None of this was reported by the Voice of America which is funded by U.S. taxpayers, among whom are refugees
and children and grandchildren of refugees who had lost their countries and their freedom as a result of the Hitler-Stalin Pact.
In 2014, VOA English News even failed to report on President Obama’s statement on the 75th anniversary of the Hitler-Stalin Pact. In 2015, VOA and RFE/RL failed to report online in English on Putin’s defense of Nazi-Soviet Pact. [After criticism from BBG Watch, RFE/RL eventually posted a report in English in 2015 two days later.] In 2016, the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG)–which was the former name of the U.S. Agency for Global Media (USAGM)–ignored then Vice President Joe Biden’s remarks in Latvia on the Hitler-Stalin Pact. During that time, VOA and RFE/RL editors were posting online funny videos to increase web traffic.
All of this is truly incredible considering how Putin’s Russia has been using and abusing history as a propaganda weapon for well over a decade. The Voice of America, still under its current Obama administration-era leadership in the U.S. Agency for Global Media continues to ignore or distorts history, thus helping Putin score more wins in his propaganda war against the United States and other Western democracies.
I did find that this morning Washington, DC time, VOA English news service posted a short AP report describing how the three Baltic countries—Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia—observed Friday the 30th anniversary of the 1989 “Baltic Way.” As reported by AP, this anti-Soviet protest 30 years ago involved nearly 2 million people forming a human chain more than 600 kilometers (370 miles) long. The Baltic States were occupied and annexed by Soviet Russia as a direct result of the Hitler-Stalin Pact.
The very short AP report used by VOA had only one-sentence reference to the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact—about 25 words.
“Friday’s events also marked the 80th anniversary of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a secret agreement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany that led to the occupation of the Baltic states and Poland.”
Let’s keep in mind that this was not even a VOA’s own report but an AP wire story, and it was posted on the VOA English News website long after most European news outlets had already posted their full-length analyses on both the “Baltic Way” protest and the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact anniversary observances.
Fortunately, the VOA Russian Service and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) did not ignore the anniversary of this important historic event. The VOA Russian Service’s excellent lengthy analysis of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact anniversary was written by a knowledgeable and experienced reporter hired during my tenure at VOA. I have noticed some initial improvement in RFE/RL news coverage since Jamie Fly took over as RFE/RL president on August 1. At USAGM, however, CEO John Lansing’s former right-hand man, Dr. Haroon Ullah, had pled guilty on June 27 to federal charges of stealing money from the agency. VOA director Amanda Bennett’s hand-picked press freedom editor was exposed recently in media reports as posting highly partisan social media attacks on President Trump, Senator Ted Cruz, Trump voters, and even Senator Bernie Sanders. The agency and the Voice of America have been in a state of severe disarray for quite some time.
Since the VOA Central English Newsroom did ignore the anniversary of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact except for one sentence in an AP report, this means that almost all other VOA language services most likely also had nothing new to counter Russian propaganda which has been targeting many countries around the world with a distorted historical interpretation of the pact’s signing and its tragic impact.
This is truly unfortunate considering VOA English Newsroom’s earlier lionizing of such pro-Soviet foreign and American Communists as Che Guevara and Angela Davis by presenting them as fighters for human rights and revolutionary heroes. VOA Newsroom editors also showed their poor knowledge of history in a recent video report prepared for the end of WWII anniversary which parroted the current Russian propaganda line and completely ignored what the so-called Soviet “liberation” meant for millions of people in Eastern Europe. There was not a word in that VOA news report about decades of post-WWII oppressive Soviet domination. The VOA English report was adapted from a VOA Russian report. Some VOA reporters and editors and their leaders have shown again and again a remarkable ignorance of history.
In a recent op-ed in The Washington Examiner, I wrote that “An ahistorical Voice of America is dangerous for the nation.”
This brings me to my main point that what VOA does or fails to do depends on who its leaders, editors and reporters are, what they know, how they are recruited, how they are led and supervised, and how their work is monitored.
I think that if USAGM and VOA leaders and staff knew VOA’s own checkered history, they would realize how easy it is for this organization to go astray and perhaps would develop a better appreciation and knowledge of various historical events which have an impact on today’s domestic and international politics. As things stand now, taxpayer-funded Voice of America confuses and harms American and foreign media audiences because of the inability of some of its leaders, editors and reporters to recognize and counter Russian propaganda and disinformation.
I was recently in NYC and discovered that VOA’s former WWII headquarters in the Argonaut Building at 224 W 57 Street are now occupied by George Soros’ Open Society Foundations. I wrote a short article about it. Whatever anyone thinks of George Soros’ personal political views and his involvement in current partisan U.S. politics or politics abroad, his and his family’s experience of the Holocaust and Hungary’s suffering under Communism made him a strong opponent of right-wing and left-wing totalitarianism and a supporter of open society and democracy. Soros was helping anti-communist dissidents in the Soviet block during the Cold War because he knew what totalitarianism of any kind can do to human beings.
To my knowledge, and contrary to what one may read in U.S. media reports, VOA has never fallen for Fascist, Nazi, or extreme right-wing propaganda, but it has been fooled at various times, including now, by communist, Soviet and Russian propaganda and disinformation.
My article about the Voice of America’s early years shows how VOA had served Russian propaganda goals during World War II with the help of its own naive, poorly-informed and ideologically-driven officials and journalists. That is why the right kind of leadership and careful selection, training and supervision of U.S. Agency for Global Media and Voice of America staff are critically important.
Photo: Moskau, Stalin und Ribbentrop im Kreml (August 23, 1939), Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-H27337 / CC-BY-SA 3.0.
Disclosure: Ted Lipien is a former VOA Polish Service chief, former VOA acting associate director, and co-founder of BBG – USAGM Watch.
By Ted Lipien for Cold War Radio Museum
The Argonaut Building in New York City at 224 West 57 and Broadway, where first Voice of America (VOA) radio programs were produced in 1942, is now the headquarters of Open Society Foundations (OSF), formerly the Open Society Institute, originally created and funded by billionaire investor and philanthropist George Soros to help countries move away from communism. According to online sources, OSF signed a 30-year lease for office space in the building in 2011. When the Voice of America used the building as its headquarters from 1942 until 1953, there were both communists and anti-communists among its early journalists and officials. From 1942 until the end of World War II, VOA was under the firm control of Soviet sympathizers and employed a fair number of communists. In a later period, a large number of anti-communist VOA broadcasters worked at the same location in New York.
Alan L. Heil, Jr., former VOA deputy director of programs, noted in his book, Voice of America: A History, that Voice of America had its start in 1942 in the Argonaut Building in Midtown Manhattan:
There was a huge buildup of the Voice staff in the summer of 1942 after it became part of the Office of War Information, with the acquisition of many floors in the old Argonaut Building on West Fifty-seveth Street, in Manhattan, and expansion to sixteen studios, several score program lines, and forty transmitters in distant locations. 1
As stated on the OSF website, Soros began his philanthropic work in 1979 by funding scholarships for black university students in South Africa during apartheid and for dissidents in communist Eastern Europe to study in the West. During the Cold War, his foundations paid for distribution of photocopiers to independent groups “to break the Communist Party’s grip on information.”
Today, George Soros’ foundations give money to groups and individuals in more than 120 countries. A post on the OSF website says that since 1984 Soros has given away $32 billion of his personal fortune made in the financial markets. As reported by the New York Times in October 2017, “George Soros, the billionaire hedge fund manager and a major Democratic donor, has given $18 billion to his Open Society Foundations, one of the largest transfers of wealth ever made by a private donor to a single foundation.”
A New York Times article by David Gelles pointed out in 2017 that some of Soros’ philanthropic activities have become controversial: “His [Soros’] political focus — including large donations to Hillary Clinton and other Democratic politicians — has made Mr. Soros a target of criticism from both the Republican establishment and fringe elements of the far right.”
During the Cold War, George Soros used his fortune to support establishment of open societies and democracy in East-Central Europe, in the Soviet Union and in China. The focus of his philanthropic activities in the communist world was then on supporting basic human rights.
Ironically, during World War II, many American and foreign communists working for the Voice of America in the Argonaut Building in New York and spread propaganda in support of pro-Soviet communist regimes in East-Central Europe, including Hungary, where George Soros was born in 1930. It took the Voice of America several years after World War II to reform the management of its programs and to replace pro-Soviet journalists with anti-communist refugee journalists from Europe and Asia such as Polish anti-Nazi fighter Zofia Korbońska who was hired in 1948 after escaping from communist-ruled Poland. These new journalists eventually changed VOA into a radio station that opposed communism and advanced freedom and democracy.
One of the contributors to Cold War VOA Hungarian programs was former United Press reporter in Hungary Ilona Marton. She was imprisoned by the communist regime and after the 1956 Hungarian Revolution became a political refugee in the United States together with her journalist husband, Associated Press reporter Endre Marton. Their daughter, Kati Marton, is a best-selling author and former NPR and ABC News correspondent. Through her daughter Kati, Dr. Iliona Marton was the mother-in-law of broadcaster Peter Jennings and U.S. diplomat Richard C. Holbrooke. 2
Another refugee from communism, Heda Margolius Kovály, was a freelance reporter for VOA Czechoslovak Service in the 1970s when Voice of America headquarters were already in Washington, D.C. She was the wife and later widow of Rudolf Margolius (1913 – 1952), Czechoslovak Deputy Minister for Foreign Trade (1949–1952) in the Soviet-dominated regime. Her husband later became the youngest communist co-defendant in the infamous 1952 Rudolf Slánský trial. He was condemned to death on trumped-up espionage charges and executed. Her VOA radio name was Kaca Kralova.
But Voice of America personnel and broadcasts produced during World War II were completely different from what they became several years after the war. One of the pro-Soviet communists working for VOA at 224 West 57 Street in New York during World War II was American author and journalist Howard Fast—future  Stalin International Peace Prize (worth about $235,000 in 2019 dollars) winner, future Communist Party USA member and future reporter for the Daily Worker Communist Party newspaper. He was recruited in 1942 by first VOA director, future Hollywood actor John Houseman, to become the chief news writer and news director—a position he held until he resigned in early 1944. His patron, John Houseman, who hired many of VOA’s early communist broadcasters, resigned earlier due to behind-the-scenes complaints from President Roosevelt’s foreign policy advisor, Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles, and from General Dwight D. Eisenhower. At that time, Voice of America studios were in New York City while VOA’s original federal agency, the Office of War Information (OWI), was in Washington, DC. VOA used the Argonaut Building studios in New York until 1953 when most of VOA’s broadcasting operations were moved to Washington. During World War II, VOA served as both anti-Nazi and pro-Soviet propaganda outlet. It covered up and censored news about Stalin’s crimes.
Howard Fast’s recruitment to become VOA’s first chief news writer and news director is described in his biography by Gerald Sorin, Howard Fast: Life and Literature in the Left Lane (Indiana University Press, 2012). Fast also wrote about his work for VOA in his autobiography, Being Red. 3 Fast left the Communist Party in the mid-1950s after Stalin’s crimes were disclosed by new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev. Former Voice of America journalist and news director Howard Fast, who got his World War II Russia news from the Soviet Embassy and rejected information unfavorable to Russia as anti-Soviet propaganda, later claimed that he had no idea Stalin was a mass murderer.
In his book about Howard Fast, Gerald Sorin, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of American and Jewish Studies at the State University of New York at New Paltz, made several references to Fast’s work for the Voice of America during World War II. Sorin’s book, Irving Howe: A Life of Passionate Dissent, received the 2003 National Jewish Book Award in History. His other books include The Prophetic Minority: American Jewish Immigrant Radicals, 1880–1920 (Indiana University Press, 1985).
From Gerald Sorin’s biography of Howard Fast:
[Louis]Untermeyer, a former editor of the Marxist journal The Masses, who was writing propaganda pamphlets for the Office of War Information (OWI), suggested that Howard [Fast], instead of aimlessly wandering the streets, apply for the same sort of position. Fast was reluctant, never having done that kind of work before. But during his visit to the OWI building on Broadway and 57th Street, he was impressed with the people he met, especially Elmer Davis, the well-known writer and news reporter who directed the OWI; Joseph Barnes, veteran editor and foreign correspondent for the Herald Tribune, who (along with Walter Duranty of the New York Times), did much to put a veil of ignorance over the worst of Stalin’s crimes; and John Houseman, the [future] Academy Award–winning actor and filmmaker, who worked at the OWI for the Voice of America (VOA). 4
Sorin’s description of early VOA journalists as followers of Walter Duranty is confirmed by declassified U.S. government records of the Office of War Information where VOA broadcasts originated. Duranty who was the New York Times correspondent in the Soviet Union during the 1930s consistently lied about Stalin’s crimes. He received the Pulitzer Prize and was the model of an activist journalist for many pro-communist early Voice of America radio broadcasters and officials who were U.S. federal government employees. Among them were Howard Fast, Joseph Barnes, John Houseman, and Robert E. Sherwood. Described as one of the founding fathers of the Voice of America, Sherwood was FDR’s speech writer and playwright who coordinated U.S. propaganda with Soviet propaganda at the OWI and in his weekly propaganda directives made sure that VOA followed the Kremlin’s line.
While the Roosevelt White House was strongly pro-Soviet, many of VOA officials and broadcasters were far more radical in their admiration for the Soviet Union and their naïveté in accepting Stalin’s propaganda lies as truthful news. In 1950, Howard Fast was compelled to testify before the House Committee on Un-American Activities but refused to disclose the names of contributors to a fund for a home for orphans of American veterans of the Spanish Civil War (one of the contributors was Eleanor Roosevelt), which became a communist front organization. He was given a three-month prison sentence for contempt of Congress. While he was at Mill Point Federal Prison, Fast began writing his most famous book, Spartacus.
This part of VOA’s history has been hidden from the American public and taxpayers, making oversight and preventing current journalistic abuses at the Voice of America more difficult. I was saddened to see that since about 2016, some VOA reporters and editors have started to present American and foreign Communists, Angela Davis and Che Guevara, as fighters for human rights and revolutionary heroes. The U.S. Agency for Global Media (USAGM) which now manages the Voice of America, has also became embroiled in a controversy over a TV Marti report about George Soros, produced in the Office of Cuba Broadcasting (OCB). Senator Robert Menendez (D-NJ) and other critics charged that the report was anti-Semitic. This led to the dismissal of several TV Marti reporters, but higher-level OCB and USAGM managers, some of them appointed during the Obama administration, were not held accountable.
- Alan L. Heil, Jr., Voice of America: A History (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 41. ↩
- Kati Marton, Enemies of the People: My Family’s Journey to America (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009), 225. ↩
- Howard Fast, Being Red (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990), 18-19. ↩
- Gerald Sorin, Howard Fast: Life and Literature in the Left Lane (Indiana University Press, 2012), 60. ↩